Bagley was also one of the people interviewed for a Mountain Meadows episode—coproduced by Bill Kurtis and Paul Andrew Hutton, and scheduled to air in late December 2004—of the History Channel’s Investigating History series. No one who witnessed the return of the children ever forgot it. Latter-day Saints who saw advance screenings objected to the film’s “stereotypical, one-dimensional portrait of blindly obedient church members that bordered on cartoonish at times.” A brief scene showing a frontier version of the sacred Mormon temple ceremony was especially sensitive. Lee led his charges three-quarters of a mile from the campground to a southern branch of the California Trail. Forney hired five women to accompany the “unfortunate, fatherless, motherless, and pennyless children” and made sure they had at least three changes of clothes, plenty of blankets, and “every appliance” to “make them comfortable and happy.”, Forney took two of the survivors, John Calvin Miller and Emberson Milum Tackitt, to Washington, D.C., in December 1859 to provide their “very interesting account of the massacre” to the government. Rogers soon learned that one child was at a remote settlement named Pocketville. The desperate emigrants, Deputy U.S. He professed his commitment till the day he was executed for his part in the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Ironically, the cairn standing at the center of the second memorial is modeled after the “rude monument, conical in form and 50 feet in circumference at the base and 12 feet in height,” that Brevet Major James Henry Carlton’s 1st Dragoons raised in 1859 and Brigham Young directed his minions to destroy two years later. The emigrants, now known to history as the Fancher Party, were camped at Mountain Meadows, an alpine oasis on the wagon road between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. But the stain of the Mountain Meadows massacre was not so easily erased; Lee remained a fugitive until November 1874 and went on trial for murder the next year. Mountain Meadows Massacre: Collected Legal Papers provides lucid access to some of history’s long-dead voices, refining our understanding of postmassacre events and making the path ahead easier for scholars. (I’m one of several historians Patrick interviewed.) “Words cannot describe the horrible picture which was here presented to us,” James Lynch wrote a few months after the mid-April visit to the massacre site. This militia was comprised of the Mormons that settled Utah. Within five minutes, the atrocity was over. Forney’s conduct while visiting Lee astounded his escort, who had refused “to share the hospitality of this notorious murderer—this scourge of the desert,” Lynch swore. Forney reported in September 1859 that he began his inquiries hoping to exonerate“all white men from any participation in this tragedy, and saddle the guilt exclusively on the Indians.” But it simply wasn’t so. During that time, I’ve witnessed the dedication of two monuments—one near the highway on Dan’s Hill overlooking the killing ground, where a 1990 granite monument financed by descendants and the state of Utah honors the victims; and a second that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints raised in 1999 over the grave of the victims, whose remains were inadvertently unearthed by a backhoe during the monument’s hurried construction. It incorporated Hutton’s updated research and focused largely on the 1859 federal investigation of the atrocity. The final script (which won a Spur Award) bore only a passing resemblance to Hutton’s original. The statements the paper gathered from emigrants with the wagon trains following the Fancher Party “distinctly charge, that this persecution and murder of the emigrants is promoted by the Mormon leaders, [and] that opposition to the Federal Government is the cause of it.” A mass meeting of concerned citizens in Los Angeles on October 12, 1857, denounced the “long, undisturbed, systemized [sic] course of thefts, robberies, and murders, promoted and sanctioned by their leader, and head prophet, Brigham Young, together with the Elders and followers of the Mormon Church, upon American citizens, who necessity has compelled to pass through their Territory.”. The Billinghurst Requa Battery, a breechloading gun, consisted of 25 horizontally arrayed barrels and required a crew of three to work it.... Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. He stopped 40 miles south of Salt Lake City to testify before the grand jury that the fearless Judge John Cradlebaugh was holding in Provo. I believe Mountain Meadows was a calculated act of vengeance directed and carried out by Brigham Young and his top associates. After returning to Arkansas, she was educated at the school for the blind in Little Rock and settledwith her sister Rebecca in Calhoun County. Rogers, affectionately known as “Uncle Billy” in both California and Carson Valley, was already a Western legend in 1858 when hemoved to Salt Lake City, opened the CaliforniaHouse (a hotel “fitted up in superior style”) andquickly won a legion of friends. It involved white people killing white people in an act of treachery that does nothing to support our pride in what makes us Westerners. “Produce them or we will kill you,” Lynch recalled saying while pistols and rifles were pointed at Hamblin’s head. Yet it has been all but forgotten. Forney’s party tried to get information as they trekked south, reaching Cedar City on April 16. PUBLISHERS WEEKLY JUN 9, 2008. For the children who survived and the families of the victims, the massacre became a deep and enduring wound. The trial ended in a … Alfred Cumming replaced Young as governor, and Jacob Forney took over as Indian superintendent. “They had a buggy parade for us.” Her grandmother gave each of the children a powerful hug. The Mountain Meadows Massacre stands as one of the darkest events in Mormon history. Since the story involved a persecuted religion, historians liked to navigate around it. The killers, however, made a mistake: They spared 17 of the children, believing they would be too young to be credible witnesses. If nothing else, the movie will introduce millions of people to this forgotten stain on America’s history—and most importantly, it should doom forever attempts to blame the disaster on its victims. According to John D. Lee, Brigham Young said that the government took the children to St. Louis and sent letters to their relatives to come for them. The party was made up of about a dozen large, prosperous families and their hiredhands, driving about 18 wagons and several hundred cattle to Southern California.Of its 135 to 140 members, almost 100 were women and children. “Brigham Young was not a credulous simpleton: he was not duped or hoodwinked: he was not misinformed.”. After Forney arrived, the men spent three days at Santa Clara while clothing was made forthe children. For most of a decade, friends of the place have lobbied against long odds to secure federal protection and administration of this contested ground as a National Historic Park Site (or Monument). None of the Mountain Meadows orphans had bleaker prospects than Sarah Dunlap, who was only 1 year old when a gunshot wound almost severed her arm during the massacre. It was filtered through Mormon representatives at San Bernardino before the story appeared in the Los Angeles Star. On the 23rd, Lee denied he had any of the property and insisted he knew nothing about it except that the Indians took it. One of their first priorities was to locate the Mountain Meadows orphans and “use every effort to get possession” of them, as Washington had first orderedForney to do back in March. On September 11, 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. Mainstream publishers released two nonfiction works in 2003 that dealt with the atrocity. The massacre at Mountain Meadows on September 11, 1857, was the single most violent attack on a wagon train in the 30-year history of the Oregon and California trails. “What an expensive and round about method for transacting what any company for the States could easily attend to at any time, and with trifling expense,” he complained. “When I first passed through the place,” Rogers later wrote, “I could walk for near a mile on bones, and skulls laying grinning at you, and women and children’s hair in bunches as big as a bushel.” The bones of children were lying by those of grown persons, “as if parent and child had met death at the same instant and with the same stroke.” Lynch could not forget seeing the remains of those innocent victims of“avarice, fanatacism and cruelty,” adding, “I have witnessed many harrowing sights on the fields of battle, but never did my heart thrill with such horrible emotions.”. William C. Mitchell, who was an Arkansas state senator, had picked up the other 15 children, who included his granddaughters Prudence Angeline and Georgia Ann Dunlap (but not his infant grandson, who was among the dead), at Fort Leavenworth in late August 1859, and on September 15, friends and relatives gathered at Carrollton, Ark., to welcome the orphans home. Jacob Hamblin, the president of the Mormon Southern Indian Mission, met with Brigham Young in June and told Young “everything” about the murders, including that whites were involved. They separated into three groups—the wounded and youngest children, who led the way in two wagons; the women and older children, who walked behind; and then the men, each escorted by an armed member of the Nauvoo Legion, the local militia. Denton is a talented writer, but Mormon historians found her book an easy target. Since the book has not appeared, it would be unfair to judge a pig in a poke, but a “press release” handed out at the book’s 2002 announcement—“Forthcoming in 2003 from Oxford University Press!”—has me waiting on the edge of my seat. If the emigrants would lay down their arms, the local militia would escort them to safety. There, the senior Mormon officer escorting the men gave an order: perhaps “Halt!” but by most accounts, “Do your duty!” A single shot rang out, and each escort turned and shot his man. More than 120 men, women, and children perished in the slaughter. The Mormons separated the survivors into three groups: the wounded and youngest children led the way in two wagons; the women and older children walked behind; and the men, each escorted by an armed guard, brought up the rear. Yet their youth did not prevent the orphans from leaving behind some of the most compelling accounts of what actually happened on that black Friday. The next day, Brigham Young’s Washington agent reported that Forney had given the Mormon version of the massacre and would “be of service.” Young immediately responded that if Forney continued to be a “friend of Utah,” he would not lose“his reward.”. They did spare the lives of 17 children who were younger than seven. Brigham Young, while serving as both Utah’s governor and Indian superintendent in 1857, never raised a finger to find out what happened or recover the wagon train’s property from the murderers. “Tragedy at Mountain Meadows takes a fresh look at one of Mormon history’s most controversial topics,” it promises. The Mountain Meadows Massacre has continued to cause pain and controversy for 150 years. Those odds would change dramatically if the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints agreed that what its prophet has called “sacred ground” deserves the protection of the American people. The Andrew Jenson and David H. Morris Collections, Massacre at Mountain Meadows, 1st Edition, Mountain Meadows Massacre: The Andrew Jenson and David H. Morris Collections, Mountain Meadows Massacre: Collected Legal Papers. Again and again, I’ve had people ask, “Why haven’t I ever heard about this?” Upon consideration, the atrocity’s obscurity is easier to understand: After all, such a tale of blood and sorrow had little to recommend it to those who created the legend of the West. He added a melodramatic love story to a born-again script by Carole Whang Schutter. “But their relations wrote back that they did not want them—that they were the children of thieves, outlaws and murderers, and they would not take them, they did not wish anything to do with them, and would not have them around their houses.” However unreliable Lee’s quote might be, a generation of Mormon historians repeated the slander that most of the children wound up in a St. Louis orphanage. The survivors quickly pulled their scattered wagons into a corral and leveled their lethal long rifles at their hidden, painted attackers, stopping a brief frontal assault in its tracks. For today’s Latter-day Saints, Mountain Meadows is the most troubling event in their religion’s complicated history. The surviving men cheered their rescuers when they fell in with their escort. “He surrendered.” (It’s a wonderful story, but none of the contemporary reports— including that by Lynch—tell it.) So ended the Mountain Meadows Massacre—but the story of this mass murder and its twisted legacy had only begun. After his discharge, he joined the Utah Expedition as a civilian, but years later he recalled he resigned in disgust at “the continual failure of the soldiers to rescue the orphaned children.”. Hamblin had found 15 of the orphans by December 1858, but he was “satisfied that there were seventeen of them saved from the massacre,” he wrote. Mountain Meadows Massacre Investigation Treasures in America has a long history with this story. For many living descendants and relatives of the victims, who have long been slandered as frontier hard cases who got what they deserved, the massacre remains a bitter injustice. James Lynch wandered the world as a mining expert, but he never lost touch with the orphans. The wagon train made it through Utah during a period in time of violence history would later call the Utah War to rest in the area of Mountain meadows. In late January 1859, Forney reported to Washington that he had recovered 17 children (when in fact he had seen none of them), and in March he finally headed south on this errand. Once he was on board, powerful southern Utah politicians co-opted the project and eventually claimed credit for the whole idea. Majority of the victims were women and children. Latter-day Saints, the people with the biggest stake in the story, long tried to blame it on someone else, anyone else—the victims, the Indians, a single evil fanatic and now, it appears, a whole bunch of fanatics. Excerpt. Neither a whitewash nor an expos, Massacre at Mountain Meadows provides the clearest and most accurate account of a key event in American religious history. “Do you know that I have my threads strung all through the Territory, that I may know what individuals do?” John D. Lee was the newspaper’s agent for Iron County that year, but as a key element in the prophet’s internal intelligence network, Young’s boast would hardly have surprised Lee. The epic had scheduled production when CBS cancelled it. The travelers were running low on food and water and the militia feared that they would be recognized for not being Native Americans and therefore complicate the war in Utah. A love story set during a tense encounter between a wagon train of settlers and a … Several children, it reported, “were picked up on the ground, and were being conveyed to San Bernardino.” A week later, that newspaper said the Indians saved 15 “infant children” and sold them to the Mormons at Cedar City. Poisoning The Well & Murder – In his official report about the Mountain Meadows Massacre, member of the First Presidency George A. Smith claimed that the wagon party poisoned a spring and killed ten local American Indians as well as local Latter-day Saint settlers. The Mountain Meadows Massacre stands as one of the darkest events in Mormon history. For more great articles, subscribe to Wild West magazine today! Several Mormon historians have made recent attempts to refute Juanita Brooks’ conclusion that “Brigham Young was accessory after the fact, in that he knew what happened, and how and why it happened.” Their efforts seem unwise, especially since Brooks observed, “Evidence of this [Young’s involvement] is abundant and unmistakable, and from the most impeccable Mormon sources.” But Mormon historians as distinguished as Thomas Alexander now insist that Brigham Young investigated the massacre repeatedly over 15 years yet somehow never figured out whodunit. In early May 2007 I attended a preview showing the day after the broadcast of Helen Whitney’s PBS documentary The Mormons, which included a long and powerful segment on Mountain Meadows. As the odd parade approached the rim of the Great Basin, a single shot rang out, followed by an order: “Do your duty!” The escorts turned and shot down the men, painted “Indians” jumped out of oak brush and cut down the women and children, and Lee directed the murder of the wounded. Forney’s craven behavior with John D. Lee disgusted James Lynch, who swore out an affidavit that called the agent a “veritable old granny.” Lynch accused Forney of assisting the coverup of the crime by undercutting the authority of federal officials like Judge Cradlebaugh by arousing “a feeling of resistance to his authority among the guilty murderers.”. What Is the “Mountain Meadows Massacre”? My personal favorite among all the recent books on the massacre is Judith Freeman’s Red Water, which brilliantly reconstructs the lives of three of the wives of John D. Lee. The travelers had few options: they surrendered and agreed to Lee’s strange terms. This is not, lead author Turley insists, an “official” history, despite the fact that the LDS Church has seemingly spent millions of dollars subsidizing the project. He claimed two children had been taken east by the Paiutes, a story apparently concocted to extort government money to pay imaginary ransoms to the Indians. Despite the passage of 150 years, it appears that Latter-day Saints, survivors of the Southern Paiute Nation, descendants of the victims and their murderers, and a scattering of historians and the curious will gather at the meadows. Dan Bullock died at age 15 in 1969 and efforts to recognize the young African-American Marine continue and are highlighted in this Military Times documentary. The Mountain Meadows Massacre stands as one of the darkest events in Mormon history. I’ll be there, too, as I have been for about every other September 11 over the last 20 years. The company included about 140 men, women and children—the women and children outnumbered the able-bodied men 2-to-1. Freeman’s novel transports the reader to a very different time and place: the ragged edge of the Mormon frontier in southern Utah. “A general belief pervades the public mind here that the Indians were instigated to this crime by the ‘Destroying Angels’ of the church,” the Los Angeles Star concluded on October 10, less than a month after the slaughter, “and that the blow fell on these emigrants from Arkansas, in retribution of the death of Parley Pratt, which took place in that State.” Brigham Young’s resolute suppression of the truth about the atrocity for almost 20 years and the fact that he sheltered and protected all the perpetrators (except John D. Lee) who could have “put the saddle on the right horse,” supports this conclusion. There is nothing like it in the faith’s history of suffering, sacrifice and devotion. Mormon historians Richard Turley, Ronald Walker and Glen Leonard claim Oxford University Press will release their opus, Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, next year. After writing Blood of the Prophets and Innocent Blood, I believe the atrocity is best explained as a calculated act of vengeance. What he and the others saw in this beautiful alpine valley would haunt them to their graves: “Human skeletons, disjointed bones, ghastly skulls and the hair of women were scattered in frightful profusion over a distance of two miles.” The men found three mounds, evidence of “the careless attempt that had been made to bury the unfortunate victims.” In a ravine by the side of the road, “a large number of leg and arm bones, and also skulls, could be seen sticking above the surface, as if they had been buried there,” Rogers reported. He was outraged that Forney accepted Lee’s hospitality, despite the statements of the surviving children, who identified Lee as one of the killers. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. It was leaders from the nearby militia called Nauvoo Legion that staged the attack on the train of pioneers. Meanwhile, both the U.S. Army and Federal Judge Cradlebaugh had launched their own investigations of the murders. It is as one‐sided and intolerant as the Brigham. That same month the U.S. Army established the nation’s largest military station at Camp Floyd, 40 miles from Salt Lake City. Young it describes. “White men werepresent and directed the Indians,” he concluded.Forney named the “hell-deserving scoundrels whoconcocted and brought to a successful termination” the mass murder: Stake President Isaac Haight, Bishop Philip Klingensmith, Branch President John D. Lee, Bishop John Higbee and Forney’s own trusty guide, Ira Hatch. When descendants began to lobby to build a monument to the victims of the massacre in the late 1980s, their efforts went nowhere until they enlisted President Hinckley’s support. In addition to the printed volumes, the full John D. Lee Trial Transcript Archive is now available on this website. Academic presses are primed to release at least three serious nonfiction studies of the event over the next year, including one by the forensic anthropologist who analyzed the bones of 28 men, women and children the U.S. Army buried in 1859. Along the same lines, Dixie State College cinema professor Eric Young, a descendant of Brigham Young’s brother, made another film in southern Utah in 2000. I’ve encountered even more descendants of the Baker, Cameron, Dunlap, Fancher, Jones, Miller, Mitchell, Prewit and Tackitt families who lost loved ones at the meadows. Following the success of Roots, the 1977 ABC television miniseries, David Susskind hoped to create a similar phenomenon with a series on the massacre. As daylight broke in the remote Utah Territory valley, a volley of gunfire and a shower of arrows ripped into the wagon camp from nearby ravines and hilltops, immediately killing or wounding about a quarter of the adult males. This massive slaughter claimed nearly everyone in the party from Arkansas and is the event referred to as the Mountain Meadows Massacre. They eventually moved to Hampton, where Sarah died in 1901. With Jon Voight, Trent Ford, Tamara Hope, Terence Stamp. The Arts & Entertainment Channel had already shown an episode on the murders as part of Kenny Rogers’ Real West series. Josiah Gibbs, author of the 1909 book Lights and Shadows of Mormonism, recalled that “a prominent Salt Lake editor” said, “The Mountain Meadows massacre is an incident that should be forgotten,” for the sake of peace in Utah. He asked Sebastian to investigate: “I must have satisfaction for the inhuman manner in which they have slain my children,” he wrote,“together with two brothers-in-law and seventeenof their children.” Many of the murdered emigrantscame from powerful Arkansas families. William C. Mitchell’s married daughter, Nancy Dunlap, had been with the so-called Fancher party, as had a married son, Charles, and an unmarried son, Joel. They spent several hours burying a few of the exposed remains. “The word ‘definitive’ is often overused,” historian Brigham D. Madsen wrote in his review of Blood of the Prophets in The Western Historical Quarterly. Marshal William Rogers reported two years later, trusted Lee’s honor and agreed to his unusual terms. Uncle Billy joined Forney at Nephi as an assistant. A newspaper story about the association’s attempts at reconciliation among those who share the massacre’s legacy caught his attention. (The accidental discovery of their ancestors’ grave, and secretly shipping the bones to Brigham Young University for analysis, offended many of the victims’ descendants.) Neither a whitewash nor an exposé, Massacre at Mountain Meadows provides the clearest and most accurate account of a key event in American religious history. By Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley Jr., and Glen M. Leonard, Edited by Richard E. Turley Jr. and Ronald W. Walker, Edited by Richard E. Turley Jr., Janiece L. Johnson, and LaJean Purcell Carruth. An Incident That Should Be Forgotten: Books. Mitchell wrote to Senator W.K. Although “white men did most of the killing,” as participant Nephi Johnson later admitted, Utah Indian Superintendent Brigham Young informed Washington that “Capt. On 11 September 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. The Mountain Meadows Massacre summary: A series of attacks was staged on the Baker-Fancher wagon train around Mountain Meadows in Utah. The couple were married on December 30, 1893, when the groom was 74. Mountain Meadows fiction keeps appearing, and though most of it is awful, Elizabeth Crook’s The Night Journal, in which the main character’s father is an orphan of the massacre, won the Western Writers of America Spur Award this year for best long novel. “I guess I was still hoping to find my own mother, and every time I called a woman `Mother,’ she would break out crying.”. The answer was no mystery to the editor who first published the news in California. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. They will wrestle with the complicated legacy of what all agree was an atrocity and some view as America’s first act of religious terrorism. … Brigham Young followed the federal investigation closely. Born in Ireland, Lynch had been orphaned not long after his parents immigrated to Brooklyn, and he had drifted to New Orleans, where he enlisted in the frontier army. Yet another battle in the ongoing war over how the story of Mountain Meadows will be told may begin soon. The channel’s Standards and Practices Committee, which had never objected to any of Kurtis’ productions, took an intense interest in the Mountain Meadows episode. Bill Kurtis’ Investigating History produced an episode for the History Channel in 2004 about the murders from University of New Mexico professor Paul Hutton’s script. For a Mormon perspective on the September 1857 event, see www.mormonwiki.com/mormonism/Mountain_Meadows_massacre. “The scenes and incidents of the massacre were so terrible that they were indelibly stamped on my mind, notwithstanding I was so young at the time,” Nancy Huff Cates recalled in 1875. Young grudgingly accepted a blanket pardon for treason and allowed the new governor and federal judges into the territory. The surviving men of the Fancher Party leveled their lethal long rifles at their hidden, painted attackers and stopped the brief frontal assault in its tracks. Noted Mormon historian Leonard Arrington served as the main talking head, and the episode relied heavily on legends about “Missouri Wildcats” and other evil emigrant fantasies, with similar blame assigned to the terrifying Southern Paiutes, who in Mormon legend forced the righteous settlers to kill the emigrants. (I presented the case that Brigham Young did it, while LDS historian Glen Leonard argued he didn’t.) During the past two decades, descendants and other relatives of the emigrants and the perpetrators have at times worked together to memorialize the victims. The horrific crime, which spared only 17 children age six and under, occurred in a highland valley called the Mountain Meadows, roughly 35 miles southwest of Cedar City. The Mountain Meadows Massacre By Richard E. Turley Jr. On September 11, 1857, some 50 to 60 local militiamen in southern Utah, aided by American Indian allies, massacred about 120 emigrants who were traveling by wagon to California. Mountain Meadows Massacre Mountain Meadows Massacre (1875-76) Called "the darkest deed of the nineteenth century," the brutal 1857 murder of 120 men, women, and children at a place in southern Utah called Mountain Meadows remains one of the most controversial events in … General Johnston, however, was taking no chances with the survivors’ safety, and he assigned two companies of the 2nd Dragoons to escort the orphans to Fort Leavenworth. Forney had aligned himself with the federal officials led by Governor Cumming who had aligned themselves—and sometimes lined their pockets—with Brigham Young’s interests. The descendants, however, knew the truth and were grateful for Hinckley’s help. An eye disease acquired in southern Utah left her virtually sightless. On September 11, 1857, a band of Mormon militia, under a flag of truce, lured unarmed members of a party of emigrants from their fortified encampment and, with their Paiute allies, killed them. The death total was 120 and comprised of men, women and children. See: Nels Anderson, Desert Saints (1966); Juanita Brooks, Mountain Meadows Massacre (1950); Norman F. Furniss, The Mormon Conflict, 1850–59 (1960); John D. Lee, Mormonism Unveiled and Confessions of John D. Lee (1892). The Arkansans quickly built a wagon fort and dug a pit at its center to protect the women and children. Jon Krakauer’s Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith was more successful. 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Board, powerful southern Utah politicians co-opted the project and eventually claimed credit for the LDS Church presented its systematic! Our pride in what makes us Westerners the wholesale atrocities, Robert Cleland... Were younger than seven it involved white people killing white people killing white people killing people. Massacre Investigation Treasures in America has a long history with this story men can obstruct justice or to. Young grudgingly accepted a blanket pardon for treason and allowed the new and. Hope gave solid performances as the director of Young Guns, financed the project himself and shot it British... For his part in the form of a white flag Baker, whose Jack... Meadows Monument Foundation Web site at http: //1857massacre.com/MMM/mmmf.htm in California almost every one, and they headed... That settled Utah, was honorary, not military. some of the children ever forgot it. them! From Salt Lake City to navigate around it. of treachery that does nothing to support our pride in makes...

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